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NC State Extension

Bunch Grapes

This page provides a list of links to supporting extension and outreach programs for bunch grapes and hybrids in the U.S.

Complete Management Guides:

Vineyard in the Appalachian Mountains (Crest of the Blueridge AVA) (photo by Mark Hoffmann)

2019 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide. (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the
manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower
application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and
pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide. (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual provides extension specialists and agents, researchers, and professionals in the agriculture industry with information on the selection, application, and safe and proper use of agricultural chemicals. The manual is revised annually offering a wealth of up-to-date and reliable information covering pesticides, fertilizers, application equipment, specimen identification, growth regulators, and the control of insects, diseases, weeds, and animals.

North Carolina Wine Grape Production Guide

Contains a detailed guide that provides grape growers with practical information about choosing an appropriate site for a vineyard, establishment, and operation of commercial vineyards in North Carolina. It includes a new chapter on spring frost control and examines the pros and cons of active frost protection systems.

University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources Pest Management for Grapes

Provides information on what one should be doing during the year in an overall IPM program. Also contains the University of California’s official guidelines for pest monitoring techniques, pesticides, and non-pesticide alternatives for managing pests in agriculture, floriculture, and commercial turf.

Pacific Northwest Plant Disease and Pest Management Handbook (web resource)

Search engine for finding information on Insect Management, Plant Disease Management, and Weed Management.

Possible reasons for stunted growth in vineyards (Oregon State) (pdf)

This publication will help you identify probable causes of distorted shoot and vine growth in vineyards and direct you to other resources that can lead to solutions. (Includes details on spring frost, herbicide drift, water or nutrient stress, diseases, and insect and mite pests)

Cornell IPM Guide

A grape IPM menu that contains links to a variety of resources like videos and updated information on topics including; diseases, insects and mites, weeds and ground covers, wildlife, organic IPM’s, spray technology pesticides and home vineyards.

Virgina Tech IPM Guide

Includes biological and monitoring information on the pests of grapes along with methods of controlling such pests and other common problems. Methods, with links to more details, include biological control, chemical control, pheromone-based monitoring and management, and weed management.

Grape and Wine Blogs:

Wine Barrels (photo: Mark Hoffmann)

Penn State Grape and Wine Blog 

A blog created by the Grape and Wine Team at Penn State University that contains current research findings, program activities, and relative information directly related to the wine and grape industry.

University of Georgia Viticulture Blog (Cain Hickey)

This blog by the University of Georgia Extension Viticulture Team focuses on the improvement of the growing grape and wine industry. Includes timely viticultural and pest management information and is updated regularly.

Freeze/Frost Damage:

Focusing on the idea of Timely Viticulture, this article speaks on the “Deacclimation Process”, practices that are known to increase freeze damage, varietal and tissue differences, types of freeze events and ways to prevent damage.

PDFs:

Assessing Cold Damage in Grapevines (pdf)

This fact sheet serves as a guide to assist you in assessing the extent of grapevine damage from winter freezes. It shows five levels of vine damage from freezing weather and then explains its chance of survival along with information on potential rehabilitation or replacement efforts if necessary.

The Art of Protecting Grapevines from Low Temperatures (USDA-ARS) (pdf)

A detailed array of information on the possible effects of low temperatures on grapevines, types of freezing weather and protective strategies. It includes tips on what to do during an active frost, cultural practices and general cold temperature protection.

Understanding and Management Frost and Freeze Damage in Vineyards (University of Missouri) (pdf)

A 108-page document containing vast information on freeze damage in vineyards. Details go into the microscopic level of what is happening in the plant to the effectiveness of various protective measures.

University of Maryland: Managing Cold Events in Grapevines

General Grape Disease Identification and Control:

Vine infected with trunk diseases and grape viruses (photo by Mark Hoffmann)

2019 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the
manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower
application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and
pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual provides extension specialists and agents, researchers, and professionals in the agriculture industry with information on the selection, application, and safe and proper use of agricultural chemicals. The manual is revised annually offering a wealth of up-to-date and reliable information covering pesticides, fertilizers, application equipment, specimen identification, growth regulators, and the control of insects, diseases, weeds, and animals.

The Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium:

Resources that provide a collaborative process between small fruit growers and grower organizations, industries and service organizations allied with and/or serving small fruit growers, agricultural extension programs and research stations working together to enhance the development of the small fruit industries in the region.

North Carolina State University Integrated Pest Management

Homepage for NC State’s IPM and access to resources.

Pacific Northwest Pest Management Handbooks

Search guide for insect, plant disease, and weed management by typing in a fruit name.

University of Massachusetts’ Center for Agriculture, Food, and the Environment Disease Identification and Management

Contains descriptions of fruit rots, foliage and cane diseases, root and trunk or crown diseases and how to manage them. This provides a breakdown of management for each specific disease. It also includes a table on appropriate temperatures for grape plant.

University of Kentucky – College of Agriculture Guide on Grape Diseases (pdf)

Contains comprehensive descriptions of symptoms and signs, cause and disease development, and disease management of grape diseases including; anthracnose, bitter rot, black rot, botrytis bunch rot, ripe rot, sour rot.

Suggested Fertilizer Practices for Grapes (pdf)

A fact sheet done by the University of Connecticut of a step by step process on a recommended method to applying fertilizer on grapes.

Characteristics of Nutrient Uptake by Grape (pdf)

Nutrient uptake was examined in an intensive year-round study of a 7-year old grape orchard in Fufeng County in order to guide nutrient management for grape production in Shaanxi Province. Macronutrient accumulation was identified according to plant development stage, which provides insight into the periods of peak nutrient demand and appropriate timings of fertilizer application.

North Carolina Grape Grower’s Guide Chapter 8: Pest Management (pdf)

This chapter briefly describes the major pests that routinely threaten bunch grapes in North Carolina and discusses control measures.

Agriculture Canada Eng: Grapevine Viruses (video)

A video on the viruses that affect grapevines and management strategies for them.

Black Rot:

2019 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the
manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower
application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and
pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual provides extension specialists and agents, researchers, and professionals in the agriculture industry with information on the selection, application, and safe and proper use of agricultural chemicals. The manual is revised annually offering a wealth of up-to-date and reliable information covering pesticides, fertilizers, application equipment, specimen identification, growth regulators, and the control of insects, diseases, weeds, and animals.

Missouri Botanical Garden Guide on Black Rot of Grapes

Contains a description and management strategies of controlling black rot in grape plants with information on the symptoms and diagnosis for black rot.

University of Tennessee Extension on Black Rot of Grapes

University of Tennessee’s Agricultural Extension Service’s guide on the symptoms, disease cycle, and control of black rot in grapes. Also contains a precautionary and disclaimer statement on pesticide use.

University of Kentucky Guide on Black Rot of Grapes (pdf)

This guide provides a description of the importance of understanding black rot of grapes by going through the signs and symptoms, cause and disease spread, and disease management.

Ohio State University: Controlling Grape Black Rot in Home Fruit Plantings

A guide to black rot of grapes by going through a description of the black rot fungus and providing a description of symptoms and control of black rot. Also provides a description on when and how to apply pesticides to use on black rot and a list of the best pesticides and homeowner products to use.

Black Rot of Grape (video)

Video provided by the University of Kentucky Extension on management of black rot in grapes.

Black Rot on Grapes in Home Gardens

This guide provides a summary of back rot in grapes with a look at the symptoms, disease cycle, disease management, and pesticide recommendations.

University of Arkansas Research and Extension Black Rot of Grapes (pdf)

A guide the provides an introduction to black rot in grapes along with a look at symptoms, disease cycle, and management of black rot in grapes.

Oklahoma State University: Black Rot of Grapes

A guide on the symptoms, chemical management, cultural management, and causes of black rot in grapes. Additionally, it provides a list of recommended resources.

Cornell University College of Agricultural and Life Sciences: Managing Black Rot

A guide on the impact on clusters, overwintering inoculum and weather and the disease cycle, leaf lesions, timing and environmental conditions for infections, sanitation, and spray timing of black rot in grapes.

IPM: Black Rot of Grape

A guide on the symptoms, disease cycle, and control of black rot in grapes. Additionally, there is a chart provided on the relative susceptibility of grape cultivars to five diseases.

How to Cure Black Rot in Grapes (video)

How to Cure Black Rot in Grapes. Black rot (Guignardia bidwellii) is a fungal disease that commonly attacks grape vines (Vitis spp.), which grow in home gardens throughout U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 3 through 10, depending on the variety.

Downey Mildew:

Downey Mildew in grape canopy (photo by Mark Hoffmann)

2019 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the
manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower
application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and
pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual provides extension specialists and agents, researchers, and professionals in the agriculture industry with information on the selection, application, and safe and proper use of agricultural chemicals. The manual is revised annually offering a wealth of up-to-date and reliable information covering pesticides, fertilizers, application equipment, specimen identification, growth regulators, and the control of insects, diseases, weeds, and animals.

Purdue University Guide on Diseases of Landscape Plants

This guide provides a description, symptoms, disease cycle and management of downy mildew.

Plant Pathology Fact Sheet: Downy Mildew of Grape (pdf)

This factual sheet, written by the University of Kentucky’s College of Agriculture, provides information on symptoms, causes, disease development, and management of downy mildew in grape plants.

The American Phytopathological Society (APS) Guide to Downey Mildew

A guide on the symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and significance of downey mildew of grapes while providing diagrams and images.

Government of Western Australia: Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development Guide on Downey Mildew

A guide on the effect of Downey Mildew of grapes through a series of images of Downey Mildew symptoms on different parts of the plant.

See How Grape Downy Mildew Develops (video)

Video developed by Corteva Agriscience on the life cycle of the grape downy mildew pathogen and how it can spread through your vineyard without a proactive and preventive disease management plan.

Downy Mildew of Grape (video)

Video developed by the University of Kentucky Extension describing the disease cycle of downy mildew on grape.

PLB 112 Class Lecture on Downey Mildew in Grapes (video)

A descriptive video of the downy mildew disease for the purposes of PLB 112 class at UC Davis.

Botrytis/Gray Mold:

2019 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the
manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower
application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and
pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual provides extension specialists and agents, researchers, and professionals in the agriculture industry with information on the selection, application, and safe and proper use of agricultural chemicals. The manual is revised annually offering a wealth of up-to-date and reliable information covering pesticides, fertilizers, application equipment, specimen identification, growth regulators, and the control of insects, diseases, weeds, and animals.

NC State Extension Publication on Botrytis Fruit Rot and Gray Mold on Strawberries

This publication provides figures and information on Botrytis Fruit Rot and Gray Mold on strawberry plants. The publication goes through the symptoms, disease cycle, and management of the rot and mold.

Michigan State University Guide on Controlling Botrysis of Grapes

A guide on the biology, favorable conditions, and options for management of Botrytis of grapes.

Pacific Northwest Pest Management Handbook: Botrytis

Guide on the causes, symptoms, cultural control, chemical control, combination fungicides, biological control, and growth regulation of Botrytis of grapes.

Botrytis Bunch Rot or Gray Mold of Grape

A guide provided by the Ohio State University Extension on the symptoms, causal organism, disease cycle, and control of Botrytis/Gray mold in grapes with accompanying figures.

Botrytis Bunch Rot (Gray Mold) of Grapes

A guide provided by Oklahoma State University on the symptoms, Planting Stock Management Options, cultural management options, chemical management options, and causes of Botrytis/Gray mold in grapes. Additionally, there is a list of recommended resources.

Penn State Extension: Botrytis Bunch Rot on Grapes in Home Gardens

A guide on the symptoms, disease cycle, and management of Botrytis/Gray mold on grapes in home gardens.

NV Grape Growers: Botrytis (video)

Behind Mildew, Botrytis is probably the second-most deleterious pathogen that a grape grower deals with on a yearly basis. Botrytis is a dangerous pathogen, as it can reduce both quality and yield of a crop. Besides being unsightly and having negative impacts in the field, the fungus can also negatively impact fermentation in the winery.

University of California Agricultural and Natural Resources: Botrytis

A guide on the symptoms and management of botrytis in grapes. Additionally providing a list of treatments for comparison that factor in carbon dioxide emissions and bee protection.

Sour Rot:

2019 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the
manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower
application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and
pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual provides extension specialists and agents, researchers, and professionals in the agriculture industry with information on the selection, application, and safe and proper use of agricultural chemicals. The manual is revised annually offering a wealth of up-to-date and reliable information covering pesticides, fertilizers, application equipment, specimen identification, growth regulators, and the control of insects, diseases, weeds, and animals.

Purdue University: The Sour Rot Situation

A compilation of the academic research that has been done on the development, cycle, and management of sour rot in grapes followed by accompanying images.

British Columbia Guide on Sour Rot of Grapes

This guide, developed by the providence of British Columbia, describes the symptoms, disease cycle, prevention and control of sour rot grapes.

Cornell University Research on Interaction of Yeast, Acetic Acid Bacteria, and Insects with Sour Rot (pdf)

This research provides background information on the fungus sour rot and describes research done to test the interaction of sour rot with yeast, acetic acid bacteria, and insects.

University of California Agricultural and Natural Resources: Sour Rot

A guide on the symptoms and management of sour rot in grapes. Additionally providing a list of treatments for comparison that factor in carbon dioxide emissions and bee protection.

Oklahoma State University: Sour Rot of Grapes

A guide on the symptoms, cultural management, chemical management, and causes of sour rot in grapes. Additionally providing a list of recommended resources.

Managing Sour Rotted Fruit in the Cellar

A guide provided by Penn State Extension on management of sour rot in wine cellars during the fermentation process.

Article Summary on Sour Rot in Grapes (pdf)

A paper written on an article, written by the Department of Plant Pathology at Cornell University, summarizing sour rot, events leading up to its development, and some options regarding control.

Anthracnose:

2019 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the
manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower
application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and
pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual provides extension specialists and agents, researchers, and professionals in the agriculture industry with information on the selection, application, and safe and proper use of agricultural chemicals. The manual is revised annually offering a wealth of up-to-date and reliable information covering pesticides, fertilizers, application equipment, specimen identification, growth regulators, and the control of insects, diseases, weeds, and animals.

Ohioline: Anthracnose of Grapes

Publication fro Ohio State University Extension that provides an overview of anthracnose in grapes. The publication discusses the symptoms, causes, and management of the fungus.

Texas A&M Viticulture & Enology on Anthracnose of Grapes 

This publication provides a description and methods of extraction of the fungus anthracnose with accompanying images of the fungus on the grape shoots and fruit.

Missouri Botanical Garden: Anthracnose of Grapes

A guide on the symptoms, diagnosis, life cycle, integrated pest management strategies, and organic strategies for anthracnose of grapes along with figures of anthracnose in grapes.

Anthracnose: How to Recognize and Control This Fungal Disease of Grapevines

A guide provided by Michigan State University Extension on the symptoms, biology, and management of anthracnose in grapes.

Oklahoma State University: Anthracnose on Grapes

A guide on the symptoms, cultural management, chemical management, and causes of anthracnose in grapes. The guide also provides a list of recommended resources.

Plant Disease Library: Anthracnose of Grape

A guide on the symptoms, triggers, biological control, chemical control, and preventative measures for anthracnose of grape.

Epidemiology of Grape Anthracnose: Factors Associated with Defoliation of Grape Leaves Infected by Elsinoë ampelina. (pdf)

A research article on to investigate the relationship between weather-, disease-, and host-related factors and survival of leaves of anthracnose in grapes.

Bitter Rot:

2019 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the
manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower
application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and
pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual provides extension specialists and agents, researchers, and professionals in the agriculture industry with information on the selection, application, and safe and proper use of agricultural chemicals. The manual is revised annually offering a wealth of up-to-date and reliable information covering pesticides, fertilizers, application equipment, specimen identification, growth regulators, and the control of insects, diseases, weeds, and animals.

Oklahoma State University through Extension Guide On Bitter Rot of Grapes

This publication provides a description of symptoms, causes,  and cultural and chemical management of bitter rot in grapes while providing recommended resources for additional information.

Ohio State University Extension: Bitter Rot of Grape

A guide on the symptoms, causal organism, and control of bitter rot in grapes.

Control of Bitter Rot or Ripe Rot of Grapes Caused by Colletotrichum spp (pdf)

This work has been driven by the Hunter Valley Industry trying to find a practical solution to the control of fruit rots in a region of high disease pressure during the ripening period.

Melanconium Fuligineum and the Bitter Rot Disease of Grapes (pdf)

A research article done by the Department of Plant Pathology at NC State University on the connection between Melanconium fuligineum and bitter rot in grapes.

Grapevine Inflorescences are Susceptible to the Bunch Rot Pathogens, Bitter Rot and Ripe Rot (pdf)

A research article on susceptibility of grapevine flowers to ripe rot and bitter rot and that flower infections have the potential to lead to subsequent rotting of the grape berries.

Bitter rot Spotting in Northeast and Midwest

A news article on new research in North Carolina that will help Northeast and Midwest growers have a better chance of fighting bitter rot.

Powdery Mildew:

2019 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the
manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower
application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and
pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual provides extension specialists and agents, researchers, and professionals in the agriculture industry with information on the selection, application, and safe and proper use of agricultural chemicals. The manual is revised annually offering a wealth of up-to-date and reliable information covering pesticides, fertilizers, application equipment, specimen identification, growth regulators, and the control of insects, diseases, weeds, and animals.

Northwest Center for Alternatives to Pesticides Guide on Powdery Mildew

This guide provides information on the life cycle, monitoring, and management of powdery mildew. This guide focuses on using alternatives to pesticides for the prevention and management of powdery mildew.

Colorado State University Extension Guide on Powdery Mildew

This guide provides quick facts on powdery mildew as well as information on symptoms, favorable disease conditions, and control of powdery mildew.

Purdue Extension Guide on Powdery Mildew (pdf)

A guide on the symptoms, life cycle, and management of powdery mildew. Includes visuals of annuals, perennials, and shrubs susceptible to powdery mildew and products for powdery mildew control.

Grape Powdery Mildew (video)

Video developed by the University of Kentucky Extension on the importance of managing Powdery Mildew on wine grapes.

NV Grape Growers: Powdery Mildew (video)

Powdery mildew is the number one disease of grapes world wide. It is estimated that growers on the North Coast will typically spend up to 20% of the annual farming expenses on mildew control. This is the 3rd largest expense associated with growing wine grapes behind only harvesting and hand labor operations.

Phomopsis:

2019 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the
manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower
application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and
pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual provides extension specialists and agents, researchers, and professionals in the agriculture industry with information on the selection, application, and safe and proper use of agricultural chemicals. The manual is revised annually offering a wealth of up-to-date and reliable information covering pesticides, fertilizers, application equipment, specimen identification, growth regulators, and the control of insects, diseases, weeds, and animals.

Virginia Tech Guide on Phomopsis in Grape (pdf)

A guide that includes an introduction and information on the symptoms and signs, Pathogen life cycle and conditions of development, and cultural and chemical control of Phomopsis in grapes.

Ohio State University Extension: Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot of Grape

A guide on the symptoms, causal organism, disease cycle and control of Phomopsis in grapes.

University of California Pest Management Guide

A guide on the symptoms and management of Phomopsis of grapes while providing commentary and a list of pesticides and their recommended usage.

University of Michigan: Grape Breeding and Encology

A step-by-step look at the management strategies for the early stages of Phomopsis in grapes.

Wine Australia for Australian Wine: Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot Management (pdf)

A fact sheet providing a summary of Phompsis and a comprehensive look at the risk assessment, disease cycle, symptoms, monitoring, confusion with other symptoms, and management of Phompsis of grapes.

Fungicide Control of Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot on Grapevine: 2016 Field Trial (pdf)

A research study done by the UC Davis Plant Pathology Farm to evaluate the efficacy of registered fungicides on control of Phomopsis cane and leaf spot.

Ohio State University Extension: Phomopsis Cane and Leaf Spot of Grape (pdf)

A fact sheet on the symptoms, causal organism, disease cycle, and control of Phomopsis of grapes.

Department of Primary Industries and Regional Development: Phomopsis Viticola: prohibited disease

A guide that provides background information on Phomopsis in grapes whilst looking into the symptoms, confusion with other fungi, and spread of Phomopsis of grapes.

Trunk Disease:

ESCA symptoms (photo by Mark Hoffmann)

2019 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the
manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower
application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and
pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual provides extension specialists and agents, researchers, and professionals in the agriculture industry with information on the selection, application, and safe and proper use of agricultural chemicals. The manual is revised annually offering a wealth of up-to-date and reliable information covering pesticides, fertilizers, application equipment, specimen identification, growth regulators, and the control of insects, diseases, weeds, and animals.

Texas A&M Agrilife Extension on Grapevine Trunk Disease

A guide on the symptoms and management of grapevine trunk disease and provides additional resources. Symptoms are broken down into specific GTD pathogens, Bot dieback/dead arm, Esca, Petri disease, black measles, apoplexy, Eutypa dieback, and dead arm. Management options are broken down into cultural practices, modified routine pruning practices, Wound protection, Surgery and retraining vines

Michigan State University Extension on Grapevine Trunk Disease

Provides an introduction on grapevine trunk disease and a guide on symptoms, diagnosis, management, and sampling methods, and shipping and handling of samples for grapevine trunk disease.

New tool in the Fight Against Grapevine Trunk Disease

Article summarizing new research provided by the University of Adelaide and Wine Australia and the South Australian Research and Development Institute (SARDI) on the management of grapevine trunk disease.

SCRI Trunk Disease Project Page

Web page that provides a comprehensive look at trunk disease with research, extensions, and additional resources.

Grapevine Trunk Diseases: A Review (pdf)

A comprehensive guide on grapevine trunk diseases provided by the International Organisation of Vine and Wine.

Growing Produce Tips For Grapevine Trunk Disease Diagnostics, Prevention, and Control

A guide on the frequently-found pathogens, disease prevention and control, and pathogen testing in laboratories for grapevine trunk disease.

Managing Grapevine Trunk Diseases With Respect to Etiology and Epidemiology: Current Strategies and Future Prospects

A research publication on current management and discussion on future management strategies for grapevine trunk disease

National Wine and Grape Industry Centre: Grapevine Trunk Diseases (pdf)

A guide that provides background, symptoms, spread in a vineyard, distribution, and prevention of grapevine trunk disease.

Trunk Disease of Grapes (video)

While encouraging growth, pruning can also introduce the risk of infection. This video provides details on identifying, treating and preventing infection in your grapevines. More information is available at www.nwgic.org.

Alternaria:

2019 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the
manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower
application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and
pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual provides extension specialists and agents, researchers, and professionals in the agriculture industry with information on the selection, application, and safe and proper use of agricultural chemicals. The manual is revised annually offering a wealth of up-to-date and reliable information covering pesticides, fertilizers, application equipment, specimen identification, growth regulators, and the control of insects, diseases, weeds, and animals.

Infection of Table Grape Bunches by Alternaria alternata (pdf)

Joint research study done by Nietvoorbij Institute for Viticulture and Oenology’s Agricultural Research Council and the Department of Plant Pathology at the University of Steltenbosch,  on the infection of table grape bunches by Alternaria alternata investigated by light, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy.

Alternaria Mycotoxins Associated with Grape Berries (pdf)

A research study on the production of secondary metabolites of Alternaria species isolated from grape berries and the determined occurrence of Alternaria mycotoxins in vitro and in dried berries.

Postharvest Decay Chapter 5: Alternaria Alternata (pdf)

A chapter from the textbook Postharvest Decay that provides taxonomy, morphology, biology, agronomic and environmental factors, post harvest factors, and control of alternaria alternata.

Pierce’s Disease:

Vine affected by Pierces Disease (photo by Mark Hoffmann)

2019 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the
manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower
application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and
pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual provides extension specialists and agents, researchers, and professionals in the agriculture industry with information on the selection, application, and safe and proper use of agricultural chemicals. The manual is revised annually offering a wealth of up-to-date and reliable information covering pesticides, fertilizers, application equipment, specimen identification, growth regulators, and the control of insects, diseases, weeds, and animals.

University of California IPM: Pierce’s Disease

A guide on the symptoms and signs and management of pierce’s disease in grapes. Additionally, the guide provides comments on the disease.

A New Biocontrol Shot Protects Wine Grapes From Pierce’s Disease

A news article by Farm Progress on the research done by Don Hopkins, a University of Florida plant pathologist, on a new management technique to protect uninfected vines from pierce’s disease by giving them a shot of a benign strain of the same type of bacterium that causes it.

Pierce’s Disease of Grapevines: A Review of Control Strategies and an Outline of an Epidemiological Model

A scholarly article researching reviews of all the strategies for pierce’s disease management published to date and specifies their current status. Furthermore, an epidemiological model of pierce’s disease is proposed and key parameters for the spread of Pierce’s disease deciphered in a sensitivity analysis of all model parameters.

Taking a Stab at Pierce’s Disease | Adventures in Genomics (video)

To understand more about plants, plant microbiomes, and plant disease, Jacques and Irene interviewed Caroline Roper from UC Riverside. Caroline’s research focuses on the relationships that perennial crop plants, like the cultivated grapevine, have with their associated microbes. Her goal is to define how the microbiome affects plant health and disease outcomes in real-world agricultural settings.

Oklahoma State University: Pierce’s Disease

A guide on the symptoms, causes, cultural management, and chemical management of pierce’s disease in grapes. Additionally, the guide provides a list of recommended resources.

Pierce’s Disease of Grapevines: Identification of the Primary Vectors in North Carolina (pdf)

A research study done by North Carolina State University on the cause of PD of grape, by surveying sharpshooter population dynamics in the eastern Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of North Carolina.

CABI: Pierce’s disease of Grapevines

A comprehensive guide on the identification, distribution, risk of introduction, hosts/species affected, growth stages, symptoms, risk and impact factors, diagnosis, and prevention and control of pierce’s disease.

Crown Gall:

2019 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the
manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower
application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and
pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual provides extension specialists and agents, researchers, and professionals in the agriculture industry with information on the selection, application, and safe and proper use of agricultural chemicals. The manual is revised annually offering a wealth of up-to-date and reliable information covering pesticides, fertilizers, application equipment, specimen identification, growth regulators, and the control of insects, diseases, weeds, and animals.

PNW Handbook on Crown Gall

An overview of Crown Gall which gives information on its cause and symptoms to the plant, while also giving tips on types of control, such as cultural control, chemical control and biological control.

Penn State Crown Gall Info

Giving an insight on the what Crown Gall is and where it might be coming from, this article also provides details on preventing Crown Gall and renovation techniques following its appearance.

Washington State Crown Gall White Sheet (pdf)

Understanding the basic biology of the bacterial causal agent, what triggers gall development, how plants get infected and how to manage the disease, are all critical in maintaining the viability and profitability of a vineyard.

Penn State Crown gall fact sheet (pdf)

With diagrams and photos showing Crown Gall and its symptoms, this document offers information and visuals on the symptoms and details on the science behind the bacteria and causes of plant infection. It also has prevention and management strategies and an explanation of the potential economic impacts.

Oklahoma State Crown Gall Fact Sheet (pdf)

This article gives more information on symptoms (along with visuals) of Crown Gall and shows the disease life cycle and how the pathogen survives, including how it infects grape vines. Following this, it has tips like planting stock management and cultural management.

UC Davis: Crown Gall Biology and Control (pdf)

Focusing more on the transmission and prevention of Crown Gall, this article mentions the ways that a vineyard can contract the infection and the many potential control practices along with dismissing some myths of removing the bacterium.

Cornell Crown Gall Biology and Control (pdf)

A very visual article with details on Crown Gall along with signs and symptoms and the disease cycle (from infection to detection) and offers some information on potential control along with information on research to find other prevention/removal methods.

Rutgers University: Presentation on Crown Gall Management and Control  (pdf)

A presentation on Crown Gall that hits on a variety of management strategies. Contains a much more scientific analysis that talks about research of the disease, detection, and infection, disease effectiveness in vineyards and current management practices.

Crown Gall of Grape: Understanding The Disease, Prevention and Management (pdf)

A guide provided by Pennsylvania State University on the symptoms, cause from agrobacterium vitis, prevention and management strategies, and economic impact of crown gall in grapes.

Michigan State University Extension: Managing Grapevine Crown Gall

A guide on the symptoms, disease cycle, cultural control methods, other control methods, and take home messages for crown gall in grapes.

University of Kentucky: Crown Gall of Grape (video)

Nicole Ward Gauthier, Extension plant pathologist at the University of Kentucky, describes crown gall disease and its management.

Grape Disease – Crown Gall, A Growing Concern in Vineyards

Research article on increased susceptibility to winter injury, tips on vineyard renovation, winter season management, research, and extension support for the upcoming winter season for crown gall in grapes.

University of California IPM: Crown Gall of Grapes

A guide on the symptoms and management of crown gall in grapes. Additionally, the guide provides comments on the disease.

Oklahoma State University: Crown Gall of Grapes

A guide on the symptoms, causes, planting stock management, chemical and biological management and cultural management of crown gall in grapes. Additionally, the guide provides a list of recommended resources.

Red Blotch Disease/Virus:

Red blotch disease symptoms in Merlot (photo by Mark Hoffmann)

2019 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the
manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower
application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and
pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual provides extension specialists and agents, researchers, and professionals in the agriculture industry with information on the selection, application, and safe and proper use of agricultural chemicals. The manual is revised annually offering a wealth of up-to-date and reliable information covering pesticides, fertilizers, application equipment, specimen identification, growth regulators, and the control of insects, diseases, weeds, and animals.

Oregon State University Extension: Red Blotch Disease

A guide on the spread, prevention, and monitoring of red blotch disease in grapes. Additionally, the guide provides a list of recommended resources.

National Clean Plant Network Red Blotch Disease Fact Sheet (pdf)

A fact sheet on the symptoms, locations, spread, treatments, and management of red blotch disease in grapes.

Cornell University IPM: Grapevine Red Blotch Disease (pdf)

A guide on the causal agent, symptoms and impact, transmission and spread, and management of red blotch disease in grapes.

Grapevine Red Blotch Disease (video)

California Agricultural Network guide on red blotch disease.

Grapevine Leafroll Disease/Virus:

Grapevine Leafroll Disease symptoms in Merlot (photo by Mark Hoffmann)

2019 Southeast Regional Bunch Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the
manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower
application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and
pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 Southeast Regional Muscadine Grape Integrated Management Guide (pdf)

A product of the Southern Region Small Fruit Consortium (www.smallfruits.org). Recommendations are based on information from the manufacturer’s label and performance data from research and extension field tests. Because environmental conditions and grower application methods vary widely, suggested use does not imply that performance of the pesticide will always conform to the safety and pest control standards indicated by experimental data.

2019 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual

The North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual provides extension specialists and agents, researchers, and professionals in the agriculture industry with information on the selection, application, and safe and proper use of agricultural chemicals. The manual is revised annually offering a wealth of up-to-date and reliable information covering pesticides, fertilizers, application equipment, specimen identification, growth regulators, and the control of insects, diseases, weeds, and animals.

University of Wisconsin Extension: Grapevine Leafroll Disease

A guide on the symptoms, causes, chemical management, cultural management of grapevine leafroll disease in grapes. Additionally, the guide provides a list of recommended resources.

Grapevine Leafroll – An Increasing Problem in the Finger Lakes, the US and the World (pdf)

A research paper, conducted by Cornell University, on the the spread of grapevine leafroll disease in grapes and management strategies to mitigate the spread.

Cornell University IPM Grapevine Leafroll Disease (pdf)

A guide on the symptoms and impact, causal agents, conditions for infection, and management of grapevine leafroll disease in grapes.

Impacts of Grapevine Leafroll Disease on Fruit Yield and Grape and Wine Chemistry in a Wine Grape

A research study on the impacts of grapevine leafroll disease on fruit yield by looking at berry quality, wine chemistry,  and sensory features in a red wine grape cultivar planted in a commercial vineyard.

Slowing the Spread of Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Viruses in Commercial Vineyards With Insecticide Control of the Vector

A research study on observations of vineyards surveyed for grapevine leafroll-associated viruses and their insect vectors in New York State’s Finger Lakes region in 2006–2008.

Grapevine Leafroll Virus (video)

Vineyard manager, Michael J. Neal shows the classic signs of Leaf Roll and how this incurable virus effects the grapes.

Acknowledgement:

This list was developed by Rania Hassan and Mark Hoffmann